Grow and Care Pelargonium Zonale (Geranium)

Grow and Care Pelargonium Zonale

The gorgeous flowering plant Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) is commonly grown as an indoor plant. The common name for the culture among the people is geranium, and it is classified as a Geranium culture. The area now known as South America is where it originally evolved. The plant thrives under high temperatures. This is in contrast to the true geranium, which grows in the middle latitudes of Russia and is hence relatively cold resistant (prefers to grow in fields and meadows).

The unique border of the Pelargonium zonal’s leaves, a ring zone of a dark tint, is the inspiration for the plant’s eponymous name. There are rounded notches on the leaf blades. The stems and leaves contain aromatic compounds called essential oils. As a result, you may detect a unique scent simply by touching them.

The shrubby nature of this plant makes it herbaceous. This perennial can get as tall as 0.9 m. Annual growth rates for this plant typically sit between 20 and 30 centimeters. It needs to be renewed every two or three years.

All during the summer, blossoms can be seen. Inflorescences may have one or two flowers. They are a component of headwear with several umbrellas. There is a wide range of possible hues, from bright red to pure white.

Brief description of cultivation

Conditions of heat or cold It gets as warm as 20°C during the summer and as cold as 13°C during the winter.

Determining the relative humidity of the air. Average.

The shedding of light upon something. It’s important to have a lot of bright, diffused light.

Wetting down. Water lightly during the winter and heavily during the summer.

The base or foundation. All-purpose store-bought dirt blend.

Added flavoring or topping. April–August; once every 15 days.

Replacement organs from a donor. At the beginning of the spring season. When the root system is too crowded in a container, this procedure is performed. Transportation-assisted transplantation.

The act of reproducing. There are two main ways to propagate plants: from seeds or from scions.

Qualities that should be present in a caregiving environment. Proper light, close spacing, methodical fertilizing, and consistent substrate moistening are all required. In addition to regular pruning, the winter chill is essential.

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What differentiates geraniums from pelargoniums?

Every plant also goes by its scientific name, or its Latin name, and its more common name. The scientific name for this plant is Pelargonium, although most people just call it geranium. Geranium is also the botanical name for hardy geraniums, commonly called cranesbills or “real geraniums,” which might be confusing to those unfamiliar with the two plants.

Cranesbill geraniums and traditional geraniums are two very distinct species of plant, although sharing a common name.

Benefit of Pelargonium zonale

Zonal pelargonium’s benefits have been known for quite some time.

  1. The plant’s essential oil is utilized in alternative medicine. Neurosis, cardiovascular disease, sleeplessness, and high blood pressure are all improved by it.
  2. Antimicrobial properties can be found in the leaves.
  3. The bush has a sanitizing effect on the indoor air.
  4. The essential oil distilled from this plant is utilized in the cosmetics market.
Benefit of Pelargonium zonale

Pelargonium zonale care at home

The pelargonium zonal plant adjusts well to interior circumstances. She doesn’t put up with nonsense and doesn’t make any unreasonable demands.


This vegetation thrives in warmer temperatures and is considered thermophilic. Below 8 degrees, it has a very unfavorable reaction. The ideal range for zonal pelargonium is between 20 and 25 degrees Fahrenheit (Celsius) in the summer and 13 and 15 degrees Fahrenheit (Celsius) in the winter. A flower can be severely damaged by being exposed to things like drafts, active heating devices, extreme temperature shifts, or even touching a cold glass surface.


This at-home culture does not require regular misting. The plant can be sprayed with well-settled water that is slightly warmer than room temperature if the summer turns out to be excessively warm.

Apartment heating systems dry the air out throughout the winter, which is bad for the health of any houseplants. A bush with a pot should be placed on a deep pallet that has been filled with wet expanded clay to prevent this from happening.


Any species of this plant cannot survive in partially or fully shaded areas. Lack of light causes the bush to lose its ornamental quality, with the shoots spreading and the lower section becoming naked, and the leaf shrinking and fading. Planting zonal pelargonium in a southern window sill is ideal. However, during the hottest parts of the summer, the plant should be kept in the shade to protect its leaves from burning.

A culture like this might use either an eastern or western style window sill. However, this will result in a shorter and less impressive flowering period. The bush requires at least 16 hours of intense sunlight per day to produce the most lavish of blooms.


Extreme caution should be exercised when watering. Leaves will quickly turn yellow if the earth ball dries up in the pot. The appearance of rot on the root system is a direct result of the root system becoming waterlogged on a frequent basis.

This is achieved by only re-wetting the substrate in the pot once it has dried to a depth of 20 mm, which occurs anywhere from three to four times per week during the summer and once every one to two weeks during the winter. It’s important to empty the pan of water that is collected after watering.


When choosing a substrate, it’s important to make sure it’s not too “fatty” and nutritionally dense. The excessively robust growth of branches and foliage caused by the soil mixture’s plenty of nutrients will have a chilling effect on flowering.

Those who wish to grow zonal pelargonium in their homes can use a generic potting soil blend purchased from a garden center. Mix equal parts of peat, humus, and soddy soil together to create your own soil mixture. Coarse sand is added to the earth mixture to boost its drainage qualities and friability.

Adding some charcoal to the substrate helps prevent the roots from rotting. At the same time, the bottom of the container is prepared with a layer of pebbles or expanded clay for drainage.


Regular and copious flowering can be achieved by applying a mineral compound rich in phosphorus and potassium as a top dressing to the plant. There needs to be some nitrogen in the fertilizer to kickstart the plant’s increased growth of shoots and foliage. From spring to early fall, top dressing is done once every 14–21 days. Each plant kind, such as pelargoniums or tomatoes, requires a different type of fertilizer.

It is recommended to wait at least 6 weeks after planting or transplanting a bush before applying a top dressing. Applying fertilizer to the leaves of plants is another option. To do this, use a solution of Zircon: for 1 tbsp. 4 drops of water.

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Pelargonium zonale care at home
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Such a bloom can be transplanted at any point in the growing season. Take into account that the new container should be somewhat too small for the hive’s root system. The zonal pelargonium in this situation will focus its resources on producing flower heads rather than growing leaves.

If the bush’s root system is particularly robust, however, a larger container is selected for the transplant. As the flower matures, only the substrate needs to be changed during a transplant; the pot can remain in place.


It has an exceptionally lengthy and profuse blooming season, from early spring to early fall. It’s recommended to prune the umbellate inflorescences when their flowers have withered. To hasten the blooming of fresh flowers, this is done.

The variety can be determined by the color of the flower spikes. Typically, these buildings are given a pastel color scheme of pink, red, white, and salmon. There are other more peculiar variations, some of which have multicolored patches painted onto the petals.

The pelargonium is a favorite among flower growers. Consequently, modern hybrids include species with flowers that resemble cacti, roses, and tulips.


Making sure the bush’s crown is formed properly is crucial. If you do this, you’ll get a tidier, more compact appearance alongside abundant blooms. Bushes that aren’t pruned properly, specifically by not cutting them in the spring and not pinching their shoots in the fall, end up with exposed, stretched stems and lackluster flower production.

During the year, 2 pruning is carried out:

  1. During the spring months, when temperatures are ideal for blossoming. Chop the stalks off (2-5 buds should remain on each of them).
  2. At this time of year, fall, so that the bush may grow more robustly come spring. Remove all unhealthy or weak branches and pinch off the growing tips.

A razor-sharp blade is required for the operation. For safety’s sake, it’s best to disinfect the tool from tip to handle.

Propagation Pelargonium Zonale

Propagation by Cuttings

This is the best method for starting new pelargonium plants from zone cuttings in a greenhouse or other indoor environment. In addition, the offspring bush will have the same varietal traits as the parent.

Cuttings are often harvested during the start of the spring season, while they can also be done in the late summer or early fall. From 7 cm up to 15 centimeters, they can be quite long. After retracing the leaf’s node by 5 mm, the cut is made. It’s important to take out all of the lower leaf plates. Cutting large leaves in half is an effective way to reduce their bulk. As a result, less water will be lost to the atmosphere.

The flower stems must be removed before the section may start rooting on its own. If cuttings are to be taken from a weak bush, they should be dipped in a root growth-stimulating substance before being removed.

The roots of cuttings swiftly and reliably develop. In 15 days, the roots will return if the temperature is kept between 20 and 25 degrees. Ordinary tap water can be used to root the segments. The cuttings shouldn’t be kept on a cold windowsill, as doing so can cause black leg disease and decay.

Propagation from seeds

This seed-grown crop is a breeze to cultivate. Each seed has a thick hull protecting its surface. Scarification is necessary to enhance germination. In order to do this, the seed material should be lightly rubbed against fine-grained sandpaper.

The next step is to sandwich the seed material between two pieces of fabric and soak it. It only takes a few hours to dry out and be ready for planting. Put a damp mixture of perlite (10 parts) and peat (50 parts) in the container (1 part). Spread the seedlings out equally over the substrate and make sure they cover the whole thing. A little coating of the substrate is sprinkled on them from above. Put some sort of lid on it, such as foil or glass.

Hot weather is good for crops (from 20 to 23 degrees). They constantly circulate air and dampen the floor if necessary. After a month and a half, you should see the first sprouts. Take the young plants out of the dark area and set them in bright sunlight (light is diffused). Harvesting of young bushes begins once they have developed at least two or three true leaves.

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Pelargonium Zonale Problems

Most cases of illness in domestic zonal pelargonium are caused by improper care or by soil contamination. The most common issues that flower farmers encounter are:

  1. Leaf plates with white circles. The rust is damaging the plant. Intense heat and humidity play a role in the spread of this disease.
  2. There are grayish downy patches on the stems and the reverse sides of the leaves. This gray mold is a result of water that has been sitting there for a while and cannot evaporate.
  3. The reddening of the leaves is a dramatic sight. There is either very little humidity in the air or the temperature is too low.
  4. Spotting and yellowing develop on the lower leaf plates. There wasn’t enough, or even any, watering.
  5. Corrosion of the stem begins where it meets the ground. When water is allowed to sit in the soil, it frequently becomes stagnant.
  6. Turns the stem black. The “black leg” is causing damage to the bush. This disease occurs when the substrate is either too wet or the soil combination is contaminated.
  7. Negligible blooming. Extremely dim conditions suggest either abundant substrate nutrients or a very warm hibernation environment for the bush.
  8. Damaged plants with yellow patches. Sunburns.
  9. Browning occurs on the tips of the leaf blades. Minimal moisture in the air.
  10. The leaves near the base of the plant wither and fall off. This is an entirely ordinary occur during the development of the shrub.
  11. The leaf plates’ outer edges became yellow. The plant has been affected by a draft or a sudden change in temperature, and it is located next to an operational heater.
  12. Pests. Common pests that attack flowers include spider mites, aphids, whiteflies, and mealybugs

Types of Pelargonium Zonale

1. Pelargonium zonale

Types of Pelargonium Zonale

This perennial grows to a height of about 0.9 m and has many branches. Leaf plates with notches are rounded and framed in a dark circle. Small flowers (20–30 mm in diameter) can be painted any color, from red to white, to create umbrella-shaped inflorescences-hats. The season of flowering lasts from spring to the beginning of fall. The summer is a great time to put in a garden bush if you’ve always wanted one.

2. Pelargonium Regal

Pelargonium Regal

A plant like this has a straight, slightly branching stem. The leaf’s folded, sharp blades feature a delicate serrated edge. The diameter of these large, showy blooms averages 50 mm. They come in a wide variety of textures and colors, from terry to plain, and from lilac-red to white. Produced solely in one’s own home.

3. Ivy-leaved pelargoniums

Ivy-leaved pelargoniums

The flowering stems of ivy-leaved pelargoniums are quite lengthy and have a tendency to trail along the ground. They do very well when grown in containers such as hanging baskets or elevated planters. The surface of the leaves is typically glossy and smooth. In many ways, the spectrum of bloom colors is comparable to that of zonal pelargoniums.

4. Pelargonium peltatum

Pelargonium peltatum

This little shrub has ribbed, drooping branches. The leaf plates, which are shaped like thyroid glands, are green and fleshy. Umbellate inflorescences typically consist of 5–8 individual blooms. The summer months are not the end of the flowering season. Grown frequently as an ampelous plant.

5. Fancy leaf pelargoniums

Fancy leaf pelargoniums

Pelargoniums with fancy leaves, as their common name suggests, have leaves that are variegated or colored in a variety of hues, including yellow, gold, and dark green. One of them is called ‘Frank Headley,’ and it has flowers that are a salmon pink or red color, and its leaves are variegated with green and white.

6. Pelargonium odoratissimum (Apple Geranium)

Pelargonium odoratissimum (Apple Geranium)

The main part of the culture is green and quiet branching. Sheet plates that have been carved typically have a palmate, lobate shape. Many villi cover their surfaces. They have a distinct, pleasant perfume that may be detected simply by touching them. Flowers on an umbrella inflorescence are unremarkable and not used for aesthetic purposes. Grow up both in house settings and in an open ground.

7. Angel pelargoniums

Angel pelargoniums

Angel pelargoniums are smaller variants of regal pelargoniums. They have pansy- or viola-like leaves and small, spherical leaves. They do very well when grown in containers or hanging baskets.

8. Pelargonium ‘Ashby

Pelargonium 'Ashby

Many of the decorative variants date back to the Victorian era, although there are also types that were developed more recently. The blooms can be found in a wide variety of shapes and hues, demonstrating the group’s rich diversity.

They are particularly well-suited for growing in greenhouses or as solitary specimens on patios and other outdoor spaces. The Pelargonium ‘Ashby’ shown here features dark pink flowers that open to reveal a scarlet center.

9. Stellar pelargoniums

Stellar pelargoniums

Stellar pelargoniums were initially bred in Australia in the 1970s, and ever since then, they have undergone a process of continuous improvement. Although the starry blooms give the impression of being fragile, they are in fact rather resilient and long-lasting. They are even able to withstand the intense heat of the sun. Keep an eye out for the series titled “Fireworks” or “Quantum.”

10. Unique pelargoniums

Unique pelargoniums

Unique pelargoniums, like the one seen, which is called ‘Voodoo,’ are very similar to scented-leaved pelargoniums, but they feature more showy flowers. A great number of them have been in existence ever since the 19th century began. In the spring, the plant should have about half of its growth cut back.

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Is Pelargonium Zonale an annual?

Some trail while others stand tall; they can be variegated (have more than one color around the margins) and have a strong odor. All pelargoniums share the fact that, unlike the perennial geranium, they must be replanted every year. Zonal geraniums are the geraniums that fit the criteria for pelargoniums.

How many years do geraniums last?

Geraniums normally only bloom for two years on average before turning woody and losing their ability to bloom, even though they can survive much longer. Fortunately, geranium propagation is straightforward. Simply remove stem tips from a 4 stem that have at least two pairs of new leaves.

How do we know if our geranium is annual or perennial?

A seasonal annual plant only experiences one life cycle before dying. Perennial plants have a lifespan of two years or longer. It depends on how and where you grow them whether geraniums are considered annuals or perennials.

Where do geraniums grow best?

The majority of annual geraniums require a location that receives a lot of sunlight, but the ivy geranium may thrive in partial shade. Geraniums that are perennial, on the other hand, can thrive in either full sun or partial shade, depending on the variety.

Do geraniums grow better in the ground or in pots?

Where to grow geraniums in your garden. Geraniums can be grown in almost any sort of garden soil, but they do best in soil that is either neutral or alkaline. Grow in a location that receives direct sunlight in pots, hanging baskets, or flower beds.

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