The coffee tree, scientifically known as Coffea, is a member of the family Rubiaceae and features evergreen leaves. The plant generates fruits that are a deep crimson color and contain seeds or grains. In the wild, a shrub of this height can potentially reach a height of between 8 and 10 meters.
The texture of the opposite huge leaf plates is similar to that of leather. The inflorescences are either creamy white or pure white in hue. As part of the cultivation process, the plant is cut down to a height of between 150 and 250 cm. Because of this, taking care of it and harvesting it are both simplified significantly.
This shrub can be found in its natural habitat in tropical Ethiopia. It is distinguished by a growth and development rate that is about average, and its yearly growth is between 50 and 100 mm each year. The degree to which the climate is suitable for the growth of such a perennial is directly proportional to the amount of time it has left to live. There have been coffee trees discovered that are over a century old, yet despite their age, they continue to produce fruit.
Flowering can be seen on a plant like this between the months of April and October. Following this, edible fruits will begin to form on the branches of the plant. At the age of three to four years, the coffee tree will bloom and produce fruit for the first time.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature. from 20 to 30 degrees during the spring and summer months, and from 12 to 15 degrees during the winter months.
- The humidity of the air should be raised to the level of (about 70%).
- Light. from behind or sunshine that is diffused. The best placement for a plant is on a window sill that faces either the west or the north.
- Watering. the substrate is hydrated with water that has been well mixed and loosened up. during the warm season, watering should be done at a frequency of once every couple of days (at least), while during the winter months, watering should be done only after the top layer of the soil mixture has dried out.
- The substrate. should have a little acidic flavor. A layer of superior drainage material is created at the very bottom of the container.
- Fertilizer. a single application of organic fertilizer as a top dressing takes place once every 15 days. At the same time, once every two weeks, mineral fertilizers are spread on the substrate.
- Transplant. only after the roots have grown too large for the pot is this procedure performed (approximately 1 time in 3 years).
- Propagation. both the seed and the vegetative route.
- Care’s defining characteristics even a slight breeze or a buildup of moisture around the plant’s roots will cause the plant to have an exceedingly adverse reaction. During the winter, the bush requires relaxation, and it should be kept at a safe distance from any active heating appliances.
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How to Take Care of A Coffee Tree at Home?
The ideal environment for the development and growth of a coffee tree is an indoor environment with an air temperature of approximately 23 degrees. However, if the temperature in the room is greater than this figure, the plant will not be harmed in any way; the most important thing is to ensure that the appropriate amount of humidity is present in the air.
The plant has to hibernate over the winter. In order to accomplish this, it is moved to a location with temperatures ranging from 12 to 15 degrees.
Every morning throughout the hot and dry summer months, a spray bottle with soft water that has been allowed to settle is used to re-moisten the coffee. It is recommended that an ash infusion be used to spray the bush once every thirty days in order to maintain a healthy environment and reduce the risk of disease and pest infestation. It is strongly advised to avoid wetting the leaves when the weather is chilly. The shrub is only sprayed if it is located in close proximity to a heating device that is operational.
The homemade coffee tree does not prefer bright light. Because it does not require direct sunlight, it can be successfully grown in windows facing either the north or the west. In the event that it is required, the shrub can be positioned not on the window but rather close to it.
On the other hand, if the coffee plant is kept in the shadow for an extended period of time, this may prevent it from flowering. In this particular scenario, he is required to supply additional lights.
An exotic tropical plant, the coffee tree can only be found in certain regions. In spite of this, it exhibits unfavorable behavior when subjected to overly copious watering or when there is a buildup of water in the pan. On the other hand, the drying out of an earthen coma while it is contained within a pot can potentially cause damage to the plant.
If you see that the foliage on the branches has drooped, this is a warning that the plant requires watering as soon as possible. If the bush does not acquire any moisture, then there is a good chance that it would perish, and it will be quite challenging to save it.
During the winter, the shrub receives watering approximately once every seven days. In addition, the moisture is added to the substrate only after the top layer of it has been completely dried.
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When selecting a container for the purpose of transplanting coffee, your first consideration should be the magnitude of its root system. If the bush had grown in a relatively small container, then it is not possible to instantly transfer it to a much larger container.
When transplanting a plant, the ideal capacity of the container should be only 20–40 millimeters (mm) greater than the clod of soil that contains the root system. If the container is too large for the plant, then the substrate will quickly become acidified, which will result in the appearance of rot on the root system.
The ideal environment for such a culture is one that has a clay soil mixture that is somewhat acidic and also contains organic debris. You can utilize a universal dredger that you have acquired for planting purposes. If you want to make the substrate yourself, you may do so by combining river sand, peat, garden soil, and humus soil in equal parts in a mixing container. If you want to make the substrate yourself, you can do so if you want to.
At the very bottom of the container, there needs to be a layer of drainage that is of good quality. It will assist in preventing the root system from becoming stagnant due to the accumulation of fluid. When transplanting azaleas or gardenias, in addition to the soil mixtures listed above for use in the process, you can also use a substrate that you’ve purchased from a store.
During the time that it is actively growing, the plant has a continuous demand for a supplemental supply of nutrients. If you apply the top treatment at the appropriate time, you can assure that the shrub will grow and develop normally, that its foliage will be dense, and that it will produce an abundance of fruit.
The following is the top dressing scheme advocated by specialists:
- Between the months of March and May, a fertilizer that is high in nitrogen is spread on the substrate. The following step consists of applying fertilizer with minerals, followed by fertilizer with organic matter.
- During the warm summer months, top dressing is performed once every two and a half weeks. Utilize monosubstituted potassium phosphate if you want to accomplish this. At present time, organic fertilizers are not being used in the production process.
- The foliage of the plant is fertilized with potassium salts in the month of September.
In addition to this, acidified water should be spilled over the substrate at a regular interval of once every thirty days. In one liter of water, one gram of citric acid has been dissolved.
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Coffee Tree Transplant
If the coffee tree is allowed to continue growing in the same container for an extremely extended period of time, this may lead to retardation in the development of the plant. Because of this, proper transplantation at the appropriate time is essential for achieving prolific flowering and quality fruiting.
Examine the root system of the shrub once it has been extracted from the previous container. Take out all of the roots that are dead or rotting. After that, the bush is transferred to a new container, which is then filled with a new soil and compost mixture. Please take note that after planting, the plant’s root collar should be raised between 0.5 and 0.7 centimeters above the level of the substrate. Take your time and carefully fill any empty spaces with the new soil mixture.
After the transplanting process is finished, the substrate in the container is thoroughly saturated with water that has melted or settled, and the temperature of the water should be slightly elevated. After a few days have passed, the top layer of the soil mixture needs to have its surface broken up in order to make certain that the soil mixture is only lightly hydrated and that moisture does not become trapped in the roots.
A similar shrub that is growing at home can, if desired, be pruned down in a methodical manner. This will assist in providing the crown with the contour that is wanted. It is recommended that you do not prune the plant at all if your goal is to cultivate a normal tree. This is due to the fact that frequently, after pruning, the growth of reduced branches comes to a halt.
In most cases, intensive branching of coffee is observed once the height of the bush is between 0.5 and 0.8 meters. As a result, the standard perspective is generated automatically without the participation of the farmer. If the coffee tree is trained to grow into the shape of a shrub, then the crown of the tree will need to have additional shoots removed in order to get the required shape.
Flowering and rapid growth occur simultaneously during the months of April through October on the indoor coffee tree. At this point, tiny inflorescences consisting of four to six white flowers will have grown in the leaf axils of the plant. They have a light, pleasant scent that is reminiscent of jasmine and is not overpowering.
Please take note that flowering only appears in the adult specimens of the species. In the third or fourth year of the plant’s life, if it is well cared for and given a dry winter, the plant will most likely produce its first blossoms on its branches in the third or fourth year of its growth.
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Around the month of October, the shrub enters its dormant phase, which requires particular parameters to be met in order to be successful. Guidelines for providing care for a plant while it is in its dormant phase:
The temperature of the air in the room must be somewhere between 12 and 15 degrees;
After the top layer of the substrate in the container has had sufficient time to become dry, the substrate is then wet;
The shrub ought to be in the shade, but it must be lighted every day for a number of hours.
The coffee tree is relocated to a location that is warmer during the final few weeks of winter or the first few weeks of spring. At the same time, exposure to strong sunlight at this time is not recommended for him.
How long can you leave it unattended?
If you have an unexpected emergency that requires you to be gone for an extended period of time, then in order to save the coffee tree from being killed, you will need to make certain preparations beforehand:
- It is essential to lop off any flowers or fruits that may be present. The reality is that the plant devotes a significant portion of its available moisture to them.
- Young shoots can have their growth temporarily halted if you pinch them.
- It is recommended that before you leave, you put the pot containing the shrub on a foam rubber mat that is sitting in a container of water. This should be done before you depart. Take notice that you should not pack the drainage holes in the container’s base with foam pieces in such a way that they are completely obstructed from airflow.
An automatic watering system, if feasible, is another option. It’s because of him that the woods will have reliable water for the next two weeks.
Propagation Coffee Tree
– Growing from seed
A coffee tree can be grown from seeds indoors if desired. Only recently gathered seed material will do. It’s less likely that a seed will germinate if it’s several years old.
The seed-planting medium is porous and easy to work with. River sand combined with soil rich in leaves is one option. The substrate is sterilized for 10 minutes before the sowing process begins. inhale the vapors from water that is boiling while you stand over it.
Instead of being buried beneath the dirt, the seedlings are spread out on top. If you don’t use it soon, it can spoil. Spread the seeds evenly across the surface of the medium. Afterward, slightly warm water is used to water the plants. The container’s top is made of glass or film to keep the elements out. The crops need regular ventilation, thus twice a week the shelter is taken away for three hours.
Seedlings germinate best at a temperature of around 25 degrees. However, the earliest germination might happen is 6-8 weeks after planting. As soon as the seedlings have developed multiple true leaf plates, they can be harvested. In the third or fourth year after planting seeds, the first fruit will appear on the bush.
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For the preparation of cuttings, last year’s branches are used, while each segment should have 2 nodes. Before planting, the cuttings are kept for several hours in a solution of Heteroauxin. Then they are planted in a mixture consisting of 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. Deepen the segments into the substrate by 30 mm. Do not forget to make a good layer of drainage at the bottom of the container.
Cuttings should be provided with the same air temperature and the same watering regime as when sowing seeds. In order for the segments to give roots faster, they need the bottom heating of the container.
After the cuttings begin to grow and young leafy plates appear from the buds, they can be planted in a permanent pot. Such bushes will bear fruit for the first time in the second year of growth.
Pest and Diseases
In the event of neglect, the coffee plant may experience issues including:
- The leaf plates are drying out and darkening around the edges. Dryness permeates every inch of this place.
- Yellowing foliage. The rotting root system.
- The leaf blades get brown patches. Substrate nitrogen shortage.
- There’s been an outbreak of leaf holes. When you become sunburned, this is what you get.
- As it matures, young leaves become yellow with green veins. The substrate lacks the requisite acidity.
- The plants wilt and die, and their leaves turn a sickly yellow. It’s not uncommon for water levels in the soil to remain constant.
- Leaves in flight throughout the winter. The lack of sunlight is painfully obvious to the plant.
- Excruciatingly sluggish expansion. The soil is deficient in essential nutrients.
- The plants wilt and develop yellow patches. Hard water is used to hydrate a soil mix or potassium-deficient soil.
- Distinct brown and purple dots populate the leaf plates. The substrate lacks sufficient phosphorus.
- Thin, yellowed, and tiny, the new-growth leaf is easily identifiable. What you’re seeing is the result of an iron deficit.
- Spider mites, mealybugs, and scale insects are common pests that inhabit the plant.
TYPES OF COFFEE TREES
Below will be described those varieties of coffee trees that are most popular in room culture.
1. Arabian coffee tree (Coffea Arabica)
This cultivar is more commonly referred coffee as Arabica among humans. The bush can grow as high as six meters in the wild. Its dwarf version “Nana,” whose height does not exceed 0.8 m, is grown in room culture. It is common to see flowering twice a year. It’s simple to shape the bush.
2. Robusta (Coffea canephora)
The variety is characterized by unpretentiousness and a well-developed root system. A characteristic feature of this variety: after the fruit branches die off naturally, they fly around.
3. Liberian coffee tree (Cofféa Liberia)
A shrub of this height and size typically bears a crown in the shape of a pyramid. Both a large room and a greenhouse are suitable environments for its cultivation. The variety has a very strong resistance to the majority of diseases that coffee trees can get.
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The seeds of coffee trees contain a variety of important chemicals and trace components in their makeup. At the same time, caffeine is recognized as the drug that is the most well-known and active. Preparations and beverages can be created with caffeine which has an exhilarating, stimulating, and tonifying effect on the body.
They are utilized in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mental and physical tiredness, headaches, and fatigue. Because coffee has a distinct flavor and aroma all its own, it is frequently used in the kitchen to make a broad variety of drinks, ice cream, sweets, and baked goods.
What height do coffee trees reach?
Coffee plants may grow up to 6 feet tall when grown outside, but most indoor growers cut them back to 1 to 2 feet so they remain manageable.
How long does it take a coffee tree to mature?
The time it takes for the freshly planted coffee trees to yield fruit will vary depending on the type and will be between 3 and 4 years. When the coffee cherry is mature and prepared for harvest, it turns a vivid, deep crimson. Typically, there is just one large harvest every year.
Where do coffee plants thrive the most?
The existence of a moderate or tropical environment with no frost, lots of sunshine, and water are the most crucial requirement for a coffee tree to develop. In fact, too much moisture or direct sunlight can have the opposite and harmful impact on the trees.
Are coffee plants poisonous?
Yes. All components that are used to make coffee beans, excluding the fruit and its seed, are poisonous to people, cats, and dogs and result in vomiting and diarrhea.
Why does coffee cause you to poop?
Coffee is one of the world’s most popular drinks, but it can also be a cause of problems when it comes to poop. Coffee can contain a lot of caffeine, which can make you feel jittery and anxious. Additionally, coffee can also contain different types of beans that are known to contain beans that cause problems with feces.
How long does the typical coffee tree live?
A coffee tree’s lifespan is about 20 years, during which time it will yield about 40,000 beans.
Do coffee grounds deter cats?
Cats are known to be curious and like to explore, so adding coffee grounds to your garden is enough to keep them away. Their strong smell is not only pleasant to enjoy when they are around, but also an effective way to keep them from returning.